Two decades ago, researchers established that Parkinson’s has a genetic connection. Since then, genetic research has opened up a whole new world of possibilities for understanding, diagnosing and treating Parkinson’s disease (PD). It’s uncovering Parkinson’s pathways and guiding development of therapies that could potentially slow or stop PD. Today, genetic research is one of our best routes to overcoming knowledge and treatment gaps in Parkinson’s.
While many Parkinson’s patients report one or more family members with the disease, it is not always clear that one or several genes are the cause. Scientists currently believe that in the majority of cases, genetic and environmental factors interact to cause Parkinson’s disease. Research into this subject continues aggressively every day.
If I have a Parkinson's Mutation, will I get the disease?
In short: not necessarily. We know that some people have mutations in the SNCA or the LRRK2 gene and never develop Parkinson’s symptoms.
Should I get Genetically tested
There is a critical role for Parkinson’s patients and their loved ones to play in the pursuit of a cure by being genetically tested and participating in clinical research.
That said, the decision to find out one’s genetic makeup and disease risk is a personal one, and it is important to discuss with your family and health care provider. Also consult with a qualified genetic counselor both before and after receiving your results to understand all of the issues involved.
For now, learning your Parkinson’s genetic status does not change your personal prevention or treatment regimen. But by coming together, people with certain mutations can help speed discovery and make a significant contribution to Parkinson’s drug development.
Finally, remember that having a genetic mutation associated with Parkinson’s does not mean you will get the disease.
Other Risk Factors of Parkinson's
Because the causes of Parkinson’s disease are unknown, there is no scientifically validated preventive course to reduce the risk of its onset. The single biggest risk factor for Parkinson’s disease is advancing age. Men have a somewhat higher risk than women.
That being said, a number of studies have highlighted factors that are associated with either greater or lesser risk of Parkinson’s disease. For example, smoking and caffeine consumption have been associated with lower rates of Parkinson’s disease, while head injury and pesticide exposure have been associated with higher risk. While such studies do not definitively link these factors with Parkinson’s disease one way or another, they highlight areas where further research may guide us to risk-prevention or treatment strategies.